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Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2012 Dec;98(8 Suppl):S201-10. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2012.10.005. Epub 2012 Nov 13.

Current concept in rotational laxity control and evaluation in ACL reconstruction.

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Clinique du sport, 9, rue Jean-Moulin, 33700 Mérignac, France.


Rotation combined with translation; compose the three-dimensional motion of the knee subluxation in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee. The worldwide scientists were focused initially on the translation part of this complex 3D motion, but since the beginning of the century there was a large interest on knee rotational laxity study. Lot of paper reported new devices and results with an explosion since the beginning of the decade. The purpose of this review is to provide an extensive critical analysis of the literature and clarify the knowledge on this topic. We will start with a dismemberment of different rotational laxities reported: the rotation coupled with translation in 2D tests such as Lachman test and anterior drawer test; the rotational envelope considering the maximum internal external rotation; and the "active rotation" occurring in 3D Pivot-shift (PS) test. Then we will analyze the knee kinematics and the role of different anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) bundle on rotation. A review of different mechanical and radiological devices used to assess the different rotations on ACL deficient knees will be presented. Two groups will be analyzed, dynamic and static conditions of tests. Navigation will be described precisely; it was the starter of this recent interest in rotation studies. Opto electronic and electromagnetic navigation systems will be presented and analyzed. We will conclude with the last generation of rotational laxity assessment devices, using accelerometers, which are very promising.

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