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Nutrients. 2019 Jan 22;11(2). pii: E235. doi: 10.3390/nu11020235.

Content of n-3 LC-PUFA in Breast Milk Four Months Postpartum is Associated with Infancy Blood Pressure in Boys and Infancy Blood Lipid Profile in Girls.

Author information

1
Strategic Business Unit Pediatric, Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, DK-8260 Viby J, Denmark. signe.bruun@rsyd.dk.
2
Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. signe.bruun@rsyd.dk.
3
Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. signe.bruun@rsyd.dk.
4
Odense Patient data Explorative Network (OPEN), Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. signe.bruun@rsyd.dk.
5
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Public Health Epidemiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, NL-3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. l.vanrossem@umcutrecht.nl.
6
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ll@nexs.ku.dk.
7
Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. steffen.husby@rsyd.dk.
8
Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. steffen.husby@rsyd.dk.
9
Odense Patient data Explorative Network (OPEN), Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. steffen.husby@rsyd.dk.
10
Strategic Business Unit Pediatric, Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, DK-8260 Viby J, Denmark. lotte.neergaard.jacobsen@arlafoods.com.
11
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. kfm@nexs.ku.dk.
12
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. maria.sandberg@rsyd.dk.
13
Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. kstark@uwaterloo.ca.
14
Danish Centre for Health Economics (DaCHE), Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. jansorensen@rcsi.ie.
15
Healthcare Outcome Research Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin D02 YN77, Ireland. jansorensen@rcsi.ie.
16
Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. gitte.zachariassen@rsyd.dk.
17
Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. gitte.zachariassen@rsyd.dk.
18
Odense Patient data Explorative Network (OPEN), Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. gitte.zachariassen@rsyd.dk.

Abstract

Blood pressure (BP) and blood lipid profile (BLP) have been shown to track from childhood into adulthood, and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in breast milk have been suggested as mediators of the beneficial long-term effect of breastfeeding on BP and BLP. We aimed to investigate associations between n-3 LC-PUFA content in breast milk at 4 months postpartum and offspring BP and BLP in early life. BP and BLP were measured at 4, 18, and 36 months. Statistical analyses were sex-stratified and adjusted for gestational age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and maternal educational level. Based on 336 mother-child dyads, high n-3 LC-PUFA in breast milk was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP in boys at 4 months (β = -20.0 (95% CI = -33.4, -6.7), p = 0.004 and β = -10.2 (95% CI = -19.8, -0.5), p = 0.039, respectively); inversely associated with HDL cholesterol, and directly associated with triglyceride in girls at 4 months (β = -0.7 (95% CI = -1.1, -0.3), p = 0.001 and β = 3.1 (95% CI = 1.0, 5.2), p = 0.005, respectively). Associations observed at the later time points were non-significant. Furthermore, we observed sex-specific changes over time in both size and direction of the associations. Our results indicate that early intake of n-3 LC-PUFA can affect early development in cardiometabolic factors such as BP and BLP in a sex-specific manner. Follow-up and further investigation in later childhood is planned.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular health; cholesterol; cohort study; fatty acids; human milk; milk composition; omega-3; triglyceride

PMID:
30678226
PMCID:
PMC6412384
DOI:
10.3390/nu11020235
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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