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J Nutr. 2015 Oct;145(10):2308-16. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.214593. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Consumption of Yogurt, Low-Fat Milk, and Other Low-Fat Dairy Products Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Incidence in an Elderly Mediterranean Population.

Author information

1
Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, Rovira i Virgili University, and Saint Joan de Reus University Hospital, Pere Virgili Health Research Institute, Reus, Spain; Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; nancy.babio@urv.cat.
2
Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, Rovira i Virgili University, and Saint Joan de Reus University Hospital, Pere Virgili Health Research Institute, Reus, Spain; Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain;
3
Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain;
4
Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain;
5
Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Internal Medicine and.
6
Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Institute of Biomedical Research August Pi Sunyer, Clinic Hospital, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain;
7
Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain;
8
Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, Medical Research Institute of Del Mar Hospital, Barcelona Biomedical Research Park, Barcelona, Spain;
9
Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain;
10
Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Araba, Vitoria, Spain;
11
Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety (INSA), University of Barcelona, XARTA, Barcelona, Spain;
12
Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain;
13
Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain;
14
Center of Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN) and Institute of Health Sciences, University of Balearic Islands and Son Espases Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; and.
15
Prevention with Mediterranean Diet Research Network (PREDIMED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Nutrition and Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The association between consumption of dairy products and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) is unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between consumption of dairy products (total and different subtypes) and incident MetS in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk.

METHODS:

We prospectively analyzed 1868 men and women (55-80 y old) without MetS at baseline, recruited from different PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) centers between October 2003 and June 2009 and followed up until December 2010. MetS was defined according to updated, harmonized criteria. At baseline and yearly thereafter, we determined anthropometric variables, dietary habits by a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire, and blood biochemistry. Multivariable-adjusted HRs of MetS or its components were estimated for each of the 2 upper tertiles (vs. the lowest one) of mean consumption of dairy products during the follow-up.

RESULTS:

During a median follow-up of 3.2 y, we documented 930 incident MetS cases. In the multivariable-adjusted model, HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for the comparison of extreme tertiles of dairy product consumption were 0.72 (0.61, 0.86) for low-fat dairy, 0.73 (0.62, 0.86) for low-fat yogurt, 0.78 (0.66, 0.92) for whole-fat yogurt, and 0.80 (0.67, 0.95) for low-fat milk. The respective HR for cheese was 1.31 (1.10, 1.56).

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher consumption of low-fat dairy products, yogurt (total, low-fat, and whole-fat yogurt) and low-fat milk was associated with a reduced risk of MetS in individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk from a Mediterranean population. Conversely, higher consumption of cheese was related to a higher risk of MetS. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

KEYWORDS:

PREDIMED study; dairy products; metabolic syndrome; metabolic syndrome components; milk; yogurt

PMID:
26290009
DOI:
10.3945/jn.115.214593
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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