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Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007 Apr;18(2):161-70.

Comparison of naturally occurring and ligature-induced peri-implantitis bone defects in humans and dogs.

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Department of Oral Surgery, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Erratum in

  • Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007 Jun;18(3):397.



The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare naturally occuring and ligature-induced peri-implantitis bone defects in humans and dogs.


Twenty-four partially and fully edentulous patients undergoing peri-implant bone augmentation procedures due to advanced peri-implant infections were included in this study (n=40 implants). Furthermore, peri-implantitis was induced by ligature placement and plaque accumulation in five beagle dogs for three months following implant insertion (n=15 implants). The ligatures were removed when about 30% of the initial bone was lost. During open flap surgery, configuration and defect characteristics of the peri-implant bone loss were recorded in both humans and dogs.


Open flap surgery generally revealed two different classes of peri-implant bone defects. While Class I defects featured well-defined intrabony components, Class II defects were characterized by consistent horizontal bone loss. The allocation of intrabony components of Class I defects regarding the implant body allowed a subdivision of five different configurations (Classes Ia-e). In particular, human defects were most frequently Class Ie (55.3%), followed by Ib (15.8%), Ic (13.3%), Id (10.2%), and Ia (5.4%). Similarly, bone defects in dogs were also most frequently Class Ie (86.6%), while merely two out of 15 defects were Classes Ia and Ic (6.7%, respectively).


Within the limits of the present study, it might be concluded that configurations and sizes of ligature-induced peri-implantitis bone defects in dogs seemed to resemble naturally occurring lesions in humans.

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