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Traffic Inj Prev. 2014;15 Suppl 1:S215-22. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2014.934368.

Comparison of Q3s ATD biomechanical responses to pediatric volunteers.

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a Injury Biomechanics Research Center , The Ohio State University , Columbus , Ohio.



The biofidelity of pediatric anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) continues to be evaluated with scaled-down adult data, a methodology that requires inaccurate assumptions about the likeness of biomechanical properties of children and adults. Recently, evaluation of pediatric ATDs by comparison of pediatric volunteer (PV) data has emerged as a valuable and practical alternative to the use of scaled adult data. This study utilized existing PV data to evaluate a 3-year-old side impact ATD, the Q3s. Though ATDs have been compared to volunteer responses in frontal impacts, this study is the first to extend ATD-PV comparison methods to the Q3s ATD and among the first to extend these methods to side impacts.


Previously conducted experiments were replicated in order to make a direct comparison between the Q3s and PVs. PV data were used from 4- to 7-year-olds (shoulder tests, n=14) and 6- to 8-year-olds (sled tests, n=7). Force-deflection data were captured during quasistatic shoulder tests through manual displacement of the shoulder joint. Resulting shoulder stiffness was compared between the Q3s and PVs. Low-speed far-side sled tests were conducted with the Q3s at lateral (90°) and oblique (60°) impacts. Primary outcomes of interest included (1) lateral displacement of the torso, (2) torso rollout angle, and (3) kinematic trajectories of the head and neck.


The Q3s exhibited shoulder stiffness values at least 32 N/mm greater than the PVs for all conditions (PV muscle tensed and relaxed, deflection calculated for full- and half-thoracic). In lateral sled tests, the Q3s demonstrated increased coronal torso rollout (Q3s: 49.2°; PVs: 35.7°±12.4°) and lateral (ΔY) movement of the top of the head (Q3s: -389 mm; PVs: -320±23 mm) compared to PVs. In oblique trials, the Q3s achieved significantly decreased lateral torso displacement (Q3s: 153.3 mm; PVs: 193.6±25.6 mm) and top of the head forward (ΔX) motion (Q3s: 68 mm; PVs: 133 ± 20 mm) compared to PVs. In all tests, greater downward (ΔZ) excursions of C4 and T1 were observed in the Q3s relative to PVs.


Increased Q3s shoulder stiffness could affect head-neck kinematics as well as thorax responses because unrealistic force can be transmitted to the spine from the shoulder. Q3s and PV trajectories were of similar shape, although Q3s head kinematics displayed rigid body motion followed by independent lateral bending of the head, suggesting cervical and thoracic spine rigidity compared to PVs.


biofidelity; child safety; crash dummies; occupant kinematics; side impact; volunteers

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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