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Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018 Jul;184(1):226-239. doi: 10.1007/s12011-017-1177-x. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Heavy Metals (Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, and Methylmercury) on HT-22 Hippocampal Cell Line.

Author information

1
Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007, Tarragona, Spain.
2
Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007, Tarragona, Spain. vikas.kumar@urv.cat.
3
Plataforma de Proteòmica, Parc Científic de Barcelona, C/ Baldiri Reixac, 10-12, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.
4
Unidad de Toxicologia, Parc Científic de Barcelona, C/ Baldiri Reixac, 10-12, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

Heavy metals are considered some of the most toxic environmental pollutants. Exposure to heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and methyl mercury (MeHg) has long been known to cause damage to human health. Many recent studies have supported the hippocampus as the major target for these four metals for inflicting cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, we proposed hippocampal relevant in vitro toxicity of Pb, Cd, As, and MeHg in HT-22 cell line. This study reports, initially, cytotoxic effects in acute, subchronic, chronic exposures. We further investigated the mechanistic potency of DNA damage and apoptosis damage with the observed cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity and apoptosis were measured by using the comet assay, annexin-V FTIC / propidium iodide (PI) assay, respectively. The results of cytotoxicity assay clearly demonstrated significant concentration and time-dependent effects on HT-22 cell line. The genotoxic and apoptosis effects also concentration-dependent fashion with respect to their potency in the range of IC10-IC30, maximal level of damage observed in MeHg. In conclusion, the obtained result suggests concentration and potency-dependent response; the maximal level of toxicity was observed in MeHg. These novel findings support that Pb, Cd, As, and MeHg induce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects on HT-22 cells in potency-dependent manner; MeHg> As> Cd> Pb. Therefore, the toxicity of Pb, Cd, As, and MeHg could be useful for knowing the common underlying molecular mechanism, and also for estimating the mixture impacts on HT-22 cell line.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; DNA damage; Dose response; HT-22 cell line; Heavy metals in vitro toxicity

PMID:
28994012
DOI:
10.1007/s12011-017-1177-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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