Send to

Choose Destination
Qual Health Res. 2018 Apr;28(5):832-843. doi: 10.1177/1049732318757488.

Qualitative Assessment of Face Validity and Cross-Cultural Acceptability of the Faces Pain Scale: "Revised" in Cameroon.

Author information

1 Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.
2 Mbingo Baptist Hospital, Cameroon, West Africa.
3 Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.


The Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) is a self-report pain scale validated in numerous countries, but not in Cameroon. We postulated that while cultural factors influence pain perception and expression, the FPS-R should remain culturally acceptable for pediatric use. A convenience sample of 36 pediatric patients, aged 4 to 16 years, representing three primary language groups, was enrolled at Mbingo Baptist Hospital (MBH). Pre- and postanalgesia FPS-R scores and vital signs were obtained. Audio-recorded cognitive interviews were performed with each participant. Written questionnaires were also provided to physicians, nurses, and caretakers to further explore cultural perceptions of pain. Four independent reviewers analyzed interview transcripts and questionnaires using inductive reasoning and identified common themes pertaining to gender differences, societal roles, and pain perception. Basic comprehension of the FPS-R was present across language groups, vital sign changes corresponded with FPS-R alterations, and the FPS-R appears intuitive for pediatric use.


international medicine; mixed-methods; pain; pediatrics; qualitative; self-report pain scale; sub-Saharan Africa


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center