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See 1 citation in Clin Microbiol Rev 2013:

Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013 Jul;26(3):476-92. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00097-12.

Traditional and new influenza vaccines.

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Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.


The challenges in successful vaccination against influenza using conventional approaches lie in their variable efficacy in different age populations, the antigenic variability of the circulating virus, and the production and manufacturing limitations to ensure safe, timely, and adequate supply of vaccine. The conventional influenza vaccine platform is based on stimulating immunity against the major neutralizing antibody target, hemagglutinin (HA), by virus attenuation or inactivation. Improvements to this conventional system have focused primarily on improving production and immunogenicity. Cell culture, reverse genetics, and baculovirus expression technology allow for safe and scalable production, while adjuvants, dose variation, and alternate routes of delivery aim to improve vaccine immunogenicity. Fundamentally different approaches that are currently under development hope to signal new generations of influenza vaccines. Such approaches target nonvariable regions of antigenic proteins, with the idea of stimulating cross-protective antibodies and thus creating a "universal" influenza vaccine. While such approaches have obvious benefits, there are many hurdles yet to clear. Here, we discuss the process and challenges of the current influenza vaccine platform as well as new approaches that are being investigated based on the same antigenic target and newer technologies based on different antigenic targets.

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