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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009 Dec;15(12):1067-79. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03099.x.

European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID): treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).

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Department of Infectious Diseases, Centre for Infectious Disease, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.


Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a potentially fatal illness with an increasing incidence worldwide. Despite extensive ongoing research into CDI treatment, management of CDI still poses important problems, such as a high propensity to relapse and refractoriness to treatment, especially when there is an ileus and oral drugs cannot be administered. This guideline evaluates the available literature, discusses criteria for disease severity and provides recommendations for CDI treatment, indicating level of evidence and strength of recommendation.

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