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BMC Res Notes. 2016 Feb 9;9:77. doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-1894-9.

Cigarette and waterpipe smoking among adult patients with severe and persistent mental illness in Bahrain: a comparison with the National Non-communicable Diseases Risk Factors Survey.

Author information

1
College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, P.O. Box 26671, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. randah@agu.edu.bh.
2
College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, P.O. Box 26671, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. aansari@health.gov.bh.
3
Psychiatric Hospital, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 5128, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. aansari@health.gov.bh.
4
College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, P.O. Box 26671, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. hjahrami@health.gov.bh.
5
Psychiatric Hospital, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 5128, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. hjahrami@health.gov.bh.
6
College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, P.O. Box 26671, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. aoffi@health.gov.bh.
7
Psychiatric Hospital, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 5128, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. aoffi@health.gov.bh.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Smoking has been associated with several types of mental illness namely schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorders with a prevalence of smoking twice that of the general population. The study objective was to ascertain whether waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), cigarette smoking and all types of tobacco smoking are more common among Bahraini patients with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) than the general population.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 222 adult SPMI both in- and out- patients who attended the Psychiatric Hospital in Bahrain. A 29-item questionnaire, which included sociodemographic variables, pattern and history of psychiatric illness and a comprehensive smoking history, was used. Comparative smoking data were obtained from the Bahraini National Non-communicable Diseases Risk Factors Survey.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of smoking of tobacco among SPMI patients was 30.2 % compared to 19.9 % in the general population. The corresponding values for cigarette smoking were 25.2, 13.8 %, respectively and for WTS, 11.3, 8.4 %, respectively. SPMI patients were 1.7 (95 % CI 1.3, 2.4 %) times more likely to be smokers, 2.1 (95 % CI 1.5, 2.9 %) times, cigarette smokers and 1.4 (95 % CI 0.9, 1.9 %) times WTS than the general population. SPMI patients smoked at a younger age and consumed more cigarettes than the general population. The mean age started smoking was lower among men than women, similar for cigarettes, and higher for WTS.

CONCLUSIONS:

The prevalence of smoking among patients with SPMI in Bahrain is twice that of the general population. The findings of the study have implications on the provision of healthcare to mentally ill patients in the country.

PMID:
26861042
PMCID:
PMC4748568
DOI:
10.1186/s13104-016-1894-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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