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Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;152(3):360-70. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.06.003. Epub 2010 Jun 12.

Chromium effects on free radical processes in goldfish tissues: comparison of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) exposures on oxidative stress markers, glutathione status and antioxidant enzymes.

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Department of Biochemistry, Precarpathian National University named after Vassyl Stefanyk, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76025, Ukraine.


The present study directly compared the effects of exposure to Cr6+ and Cr3+ (10 mg/L) over 24, 48 and 96 h on indices of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant and related enzymes in goldfish brain, liver, kidney and gills. Glutathione status clearly demonstrated the development of oxidative stress, whereas changes in protein carbonyls and lipid peroxides were less pronounced. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was virtually unaffected after 24 or 96 h exposure, but 48 h exposure to Cr6+ reduced SOD activity in brain (by 30%), enhanced activity in kidney (by 28%) and had no effect on liver SOD. Chromium exposure for shorter times had no effect on catalase activity, whereas 96 h exposure depressed activity in liver, kidney and gills. Exposure to Cr6+ reduced catalase activity in liver by 53% and in kidney by 21%, while in gills it was reduced by 20 and 38% by exposure to Cr3+ and Cr6+, respectively. Exposure to chromium for 24 h did not affect glutathione-S-transferase activity, but treatment with Cr6+ for 48 h enhanced it in brain by 1.5-fold, whereas exposure to Cr3+ decreased activity by 29% in kidney. Fish treatment with chromium ions for 96 h decreased glutathione-S-transferase activity in liver by 51 and 25%, respectively. Chromium exposure had very little effect on the activities of GR or G6PDH. These data show that both chromium ions induced oxidative stress in goldfish tissues and affected the activity of antioxidant and associated enzymes.

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