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Andrology. 2017 May;5(3):556-561. doi: 10.1111/andr.12326. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Characteristics of symptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis - A Danish cross-sectional questionnaire study.

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Department of Radiology, Vejle Hospital, Part of Lillebaelt Hospital, Vejle, Denmark.
Urological Research Centre, Vejle Hospital, Part of Lillebaelt Hospital, Vejle, Denmark.
Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
Cancer Epidemiology and Population Health, King's College London, London, UK.
Research Unit for General Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.


Testicular microlithiasis (TML) is an incidental finding at ultrasonography of the scrotum. A link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer has been suggested. However, the majority of studies are retrospective using ultrasonography with minor data on health status and life style characteristics. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle and health are associated with TML. In 2014, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey including 1538 men, who all due to testicular/scrotal symptoms had an ultrasound investigation of the scrotum during 2004-2013. The men were divided into men with TML and men without. The 23-items questionnaire included items on age, height, weight, lifestyle (alcohol consumptions, smoking habits, workload, exercise and food), previous diseases in the testicles, pain and consumption of analgesics. The prevalence of TML was 12.8%. Overall, lifestyle factors did not vary between men with or without TML. However, men with TML did consume more crisp than men without. Development of TML was not associated to classic life style factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking habits, or mothers smoking during pregnancy. Also, age and height could not be linked to presence of TML. We did find, however, that men with TML experienced less physical activity and consumed more crisp than men without TML. Since ingestion of crisps has potential carcinogenic effect (acrylamide), this finding needs confirmation in a separate study.


Denmark; questionnaire; testicular microlithiasis; testis cancer; ultrasound examination

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