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Part Fibre Toxicol. 2018 Apr 12;15(1):16. doi: 10.1186/s12989-018-0253-5.

Carbon black suppresses the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells: the role of mitochondria.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine (SKLRM) & Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211100, Jiangsu, China.
2
Department of Pharmaceutics and Medicinal Chemistry, University of the Pacific, Stockton, 95211, USA.
3
State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine (SKLRM) & Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211100, Jiangsu, China. xuemeizhang@njmu.edu.cn.
4
State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine (SKLRM) & Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211100, Jiangsu, China. xinwu@njmu.edu.cn.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The rapid increase in carbon black poses threats to human health. We evaluated the effect of CB (Printex 90) on the osteogenesis of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mitochondria play an important role in the osteogenesis of MSCs and are potential targets of nanomaterials, so we studied the role of mitochondria in the CB Printex 90-induced effects on osteogenesis.

RESULTS:

Low doses of Printex 90 (3 ng/mL and 30 ng/mL) that did not cause deleterious effects on MSCs' viability significantly inhibited osteogenesis of MSCs. Printex 90 caused down-regulation of osteoblastic markers, reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and poor mineralization of osteogenically induced MSCs. Cellular ATP production was decreased, mitochondrial respiration was impaired with reduced expression of ATPase, and the mitochondrial membrane was depolarized. The quantity and quality of mitochondria are tightly controlled by mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. The transcriptional co-activator and transcription factors for mitochondrial biogenesis, PGC-1α, Nrf1 and TFAM, were suppressed by Printex 90 treatment, suggesting that decreased biogenesis was caused by Printex 90 treatment during osteogenesis. Mitochondrial fusion and fission were significantly inhibited by Printex 90 treatment. PINK1 accumulated in Printex 90-treated cells, and more Parkin was recruited to mitochondria, indicating that mitophagy increased to remove the damaged mitochondria.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first report of the inhibitory effects of CB on the osteogenesis of MSCs and the involvement of mitochondria in CB Printex 90-induced suppression of MSC osteogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

Carbon black; Mesenchymal stem cells; Mitochondrial biogenesis; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitophagy; Osteogenesis

PMID:
29650039
PMCID:
PMC5897950
DOI:
10.1186/s12989-018-0253-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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