Format

Send to

Choose Destination

See 1 citation found by title matching your search:

Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2019 Jan;23(1):204-213. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.09.009. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

CSF neopterin, a useful biomarker in children presenting with influenza associated encephalopathy?

Author information

1
Sydney Children's Hospital Network (SCHN), Australia; The University of New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address: emma.macdonaldlaurs@health.nsw.gov.au.
2
Sydney Children's Hospital Network (SCHN), Australia; The University of New South Wales, Australia.
3
Sydney Children's Hospital Network (SCHN), Australia; The University of Sydney, Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Australia.
4
NSW Health Pathology, Australia.
5
Sydney Children's Hospital Network (SCHN), Australia; Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.
6
Sydney Children's Hospital Network (SCHN), Australia.
7
Sydney Children's Hospital Network (SCHN), Australia; The University of Sydney, Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Australia; The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; The University of Melbourne, Department of Paediatrics, Australia.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Neurological complications of influenza cause significant disease in children. Central nervous system inflammation, the presumed mechanism of influenza-associated encephalopathy, is difficult to detect. Characteristics of children presenting with severe neurological complications of influenza, and potential biomarkers of influenza-associated encephalopathy are described.

METHODS:

A multi-center, retrospective case-series of children with influenza and neurological complications during 2017 was performed. Enrolled cases met criteria for influenza-associated encephalopathy or had status epilepticus. Functional outcome at discharge was compared between groups using the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

RESULTS:

There were 22 children with influenza studied of whom 11/22 had encephalopathy and 11/22 had status epilepticus. Only one child had a documented influenza immunization. The biomarker CSF neopterin was tested in 10/11 children with encephalopathy and was elevated in 8/10. MRI was performed in all children with encephalopathy and was abnormal in 8 (73%). Treatment of children with encephalopathy was with corticosteroids or intravenous immunoglobulin in 9/11 (82%). In all cases oseltamivir use was low (59%) while admission to the intensive care unit was frequent (14/22, 66%). Clinical outcome at discharge was moderate to severe disability (mRS score > 2) in the majority of children with encephalopathy (7/11, 64%), including one child who died. Children with status epilepticus recovered to near-baseline function in all cases.

CONCLUSION:

Raised CSF neopterin was present in most cases of encephalopathy, and along with diffusion restriction on MRI, is a useful diagnostic biomarker. Lack of seasonal influenza vaccination represents a missed opportunity to prevent illness in children, including severe neurological disease.

KEYWORDS:

Encephalitis; Influenza; Influenza-associated encephalitis; Magnetic resonance imaging; Neopterin; Neuroinflammation; Status epilepticus

PMID:
30316638
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.09.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center