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Psychiatry Res. 2015 Oct 30;234(1):74-83. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.08.008. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

Brain structure and function correlates of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia.

Author information

1
Translational Developmental Neuroscience Section, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
2
Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States of America.
3
Minneapolis VA Health Care System & Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America.
4
MGH/MIT/HMS Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States of America.
5
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States of America; The MIND Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, United States of America.
6
Translational Developmental Neuroscience Section, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; MGH/MIT/HMS Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address: KJP-AG-Ehrlich@uniklinikum-dresden.de.

Abstract

Stable neuropsychological deficits may provide a reliable basis for identifying etiological subtypes of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of individuals with schizophrenia based on dimensions of neuropsychological performance, and to characterize their neural correlates. We acquired neuropsychological data as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging from 129 patients with schizophrenia and 165 healthy controls. We derived eight cognitive dimensions and subsequently applied a cluster analysis to identify possible schizophrenia subtypes. Analyses suggested the following four cognitive clusters of schizophrenia: (1) Diminished Verbal Fluency, (2) Diminished Verbal Memory and Poor Motor Control, (3) Diminished Face Memory and Slowed Processing, and (4) Diminished Intellectual Function. The clusters were characterized by a specific pattern of structural brain changes in areas such as Wernicke's area, lingual gyrus and occipital face area, and hippocampus as well as differences in working memory-elicited neural activity in several fronto-parietal brain regions. Separable measures of cognitive function appear to provide a method for deriving cognitive subtypes meaningfully related to brain structure and function. Because the present study identified brain-based neural correlates of the cognitive clusters, the proposed groups of individuals with schizophrenia have some external validity.

KEYWORDS:

Cluster analysis; Cognitive subtypes; Cortical thickness; Neural correlates; Neuropsychological performance; Schizophrenia; Subcortical volume; Working memory

PMID:
26341950
PMCID:
PMC4705852
DOI:
10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.08.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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