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Neurol Sci. 2017 Jan;38(1):151-156. doi: 10.1007/s10072-016-2742-3. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

Association of sudomotor function with peripheral artery disease in type 2 diabetes.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India.
Healing Touch City Clinic, # 547, Sector 16-D, Chandigarh, 160015, India.
Fortis Multi Speciality Hospital, Mohali, Punjab, India.


Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. Autonomic neuropathy is a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Sudomotor dysfunction is well established in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and reflects small fibre neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and peripheral sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. However, the relationship between sudomotor dysfunction and PAD remains unexplored. Therefore, the aim of present study was to explore the association of sudomotor function with ankle-brachial index (ABI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in T2DM. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 36 consecutive type 2 diabetes patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Sudomotor function was assessed using Sudoscan (Sudoscan-Impeto Medical Device, EZS 01750010193, Paris, France), which detects sweat gland function through measurement of electrochemical skin conductance of both hands and feet. Measurement of ankle-brachial ABI was carried out with sphygmomanometer and Doppler device (Hadeco Bidop ES-100V3). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and inflammatory marker CRP were also measured. Type 2 diabetic patients had significantly impaired sudomotor function (48.14 ± 8.28 vs. 76.48 ± 6.72 µs), lower ABI (0.89 ± 0.25 vs. 1.15 ± 0.11) and elevated CRP (5.32 ± 2.41 vs. 2.45 ± 1.11 mg/l) as compared to healthy controls, respectively (p < 0.01). Sudoscan scores were found to be inversely correlated with CRP and HbA1c, and directly correlated with ABI (p < 0.05) in the patients. Sudomotor dysfunction is associated with significant peripheral artery disease, vascular inflammation and impaired glycaemic status.


Peripheral artery disease; Sudomotor dysfunction; Type 2 diabetes; Vascular inflammation

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