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Perit Dial Int. 2009 Jan-Feb;29(1):89-101.

Antioxidant status of patients on peritoneal dialysis: associations with inflammation and glycoxidative stress.

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Human Nutrition & Metabolism Research and Training Center Graz, Institute of Molecular Sciences, Karl-Franzens University, Graz, Austria.



Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently exhibit oxidant-antioxidant imbalance, advanced glycation end-product overload, and subclinical inflammation but the interrelations between these pathophysiological changes have not been fully elucidated.


To study possible associations, a cross-sectional study of antioxidant status, glycoxidative stress, and inflammation, using HPLC and ELISA methods, was undertaken in 37 PD patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls.


Plasma ascorbate concentrations were low in patients not taking at least low-dose vitamin C supplements. In patients taking vitamin C supplements, there was a positive relation between ascorbate and pentosidine concentrations. Vitamin E and carotenoid concentrations were comparable between patients and controls, while lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations were lower. Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and pentosidine concentrations were elevated in PD patients. beta-Cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations were inversely related to interleukin-6 concentrations. beta-Cryptoxanthin concentrations were also inversely related to CRP concentrations. Pentosidine showed a low dialysate-to-plasma ratio, indicating low peritoneal clearance. Pentosidine concentrations increased with duration of PD therapy, while alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations decreased. Malondialdehyde concentrations were elevated compared to controls but remained within the normal range. Retinol concentrations decreased with PD therapy and were inversely related to interleukin-6 and CRP concentrations.


Low-dose vitamin C supplements and a carotenoid-rich diet should be recommended for PD patients to maintain normal antioxidant status and efficiently counteract the chronic inflammatory response, rather than high doses of vitamin C, which could play a role as a precursor of pentosidine.

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