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Patient Prefer Adherence. 2018 Oct 29;12:2253-2261. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S176262. eCollection 2018.

Demand and willingness to pay for different treatment and care services among patients with heart diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Author information

Department of Health Economics, Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam,
Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA,
Center of Excellence in Evidence-based Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Hanoi Heart Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Department of General Planning and Department of Cardiology, Friendship Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Tam Anh Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Hanoi Department of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Department of Neurosurgery Spine-Surgery, Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.



In Vietnam, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are serious health issues, especially in the context of overload central heart hospitals, insufficient primary healthcare, and lack of customer-oriented care and treatment. Attempts to measure demand and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for different CVD treatments and care services have been limited. This study explored the preferences and WTP of patients with heart diseases for different home- and hospital-based services in Hanoi, Vietnam.


A cross-sectional survey was performed at the Hanoi Heart Hospital from July to December 2017. A contingent valuation was adopted to determine the preferences of patients and measure their WTP. Interval regressions were employed to determine the potential predictors of patients' WTP.


Hospital-based services were most preferred by patients, with demand ranging from 45.6% to 82.3% of total participants, followed by home-based (45.4%-45.8%) and administrative services (28.9%-34%). WTP for hospital-based services were in the range of US$ 9.8 (US$ 8.4-11.2)-US$ 21.9 (US$ 20.3-23.4), while figures for home-based and administrative services were US$ 9.8 (US$ 8.4-11.2)-US$ 22 (US$ 18.7-25.3) and 1.9 (US$ 1.6-2.2)-US$ 7.5 (US$ 6.3-8.6), respectively. Patients who lived in urban areas, were employed, were having higher level of education, and were not covered by health insurance were willing to pay more for services, especially home-based ones.


Demand and WTP for home-based services among heart disease patients were moderately low compared with hospital-based ones. There is a need for more policies supporting home-based services, better communication of services' benefits to general public and patients, and introduction of services packages based on patients' preferences.


Vietnam; heart disease; preference; service; willingness to pay

Conflict of interest statement

Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

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