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J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2019 Jul 22. doi: 10.1111/jeu.12751. [Epub ahead of print]

An Ultrastructural Study of the Extruded Polar Tube of Anncaliia algerae (Microsporidia).

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 195 University Avenue, Newark, New Jersey, 07733.
2
Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York, 10461.
3
National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, Simons Electron Microscopy Center, New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York City, New York, 10027.
4
Analytical Imaging Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York, 10461.
5
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York, 10461.

Abstract

All microsporidia share a unique, extracellular spore stage, containing the infective sporoplasm and the apparatus for initiating infection. The polar filament/polar tube when exiting the spore transports the sporoplasm through it into a host cell. While universal, these structures and processes have been enigmatic. This study utilized several types of microscopy, describing and extending our understanding of these structures and their functions. Cryogenically preserved polar tubes vary in diameter from 155 to over 200 nm, noticeably larger than fixed-sectioned or negatively stained samples. The polar tube surface is pleated and covered with fine fibrillar material that projects from the surface and is organized in clusters or tufts. These fibrils may be the sites of glycoproteins providing protection and aiding infectivity. The polar tube surface is ridged with 5-6 nm spacing between ridges, enabling the polar tube to rapidly increase its diameter to facilitate the passage of the various cargo including cylinders, sacs or vesicles filled with particulate material and the intact sporoplasm containing a diplokaryon. The lumen of the tube is lined with a membrane that facilitates this passage. Careful examination of the terminus of the tube indicates that it has a closed tip where the membranes for the terminal sac are located.

KEYWORDS:

3D-reconstruction; cargo; cryogenic transmission electron microscopy; plunge freeze; polar filament; polar tube protein; spore germination; sporoplasm

PMID:
31332877
DOI:
10.1111/jeu.12751

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