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J Alzheimers Dis. 2016 Jun 27;53(4):1271-6. doi: 10.3233/JAD-160388.

Alzheimer's Disease: Assessing the Role of Spirochetes, Biofilms, the Immune System, and Amyloid-β with Regard to Potential Treatment and Prevention.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an infectious disease caused by spirochetes, and these spirochetes form biofilms, which attract the innate immune system. The innate immune system first responder, Toll-like receptor 2, generates both NF-κB and TNF-α which try to kill the spirochetes in the biofilm, but cannot penetrate the "slime". NF-κB is also responsible for the generation of amyloid-β (Aβ) which itself is anti-microbial. Aβ cannot penetrate the biofilm either, and its accumulation leads to destruction of the cerebral neurocircuitry. Treatment with penicillin (as in tertiary syphilis, the comparator to AD) is outlined; a biofilm dispersing agent may need to be added to the protocol.

KEYWORDS:

Amyloid-β; biofilm; innate immunity; spirochetes; treatment

PMID:
27372648
PMCID:
PMC5008232
DOI:
10.3233/JAD-160388
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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