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Int J Endocrinol. 2015;2015:957105. doi: 10.1155/2015/957105. Epub 2015 Mar 19.

Age- and Gender-Related Differences in LDL-Cholesterol Management in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

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Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy.
Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Epidemiology, Fondazione Mario Negri Sud, Via Nazionale, 66030 S. Maria Imbaro, Italy.
Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, ASL TO5, 10023 Chieri, Italy.
Diabetes and Endocrinology Unit, Cardarelli Hospital, 86100 Campobasso, Italy.
Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, 00157 Rome, Italy.
Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Unit, San Martino Hospital, 09170 Oristano, Italy.
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, S. Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, 00189 Rome, Italy.
Diabetes Unit, Montecchio Hospital, 42027 Montecchio Emilia, Italy.



Dyslipidemia contribute to the excess of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk observed in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is the major target for CHD prevention, and T2DM women seem to reach LDL-C targets less frequently than men.


To explore age- and gender-related differences in LDL-C management in a large sample of outpatients with T2DM.


Overall, 415.294 patients (45.3% women) from 236 diabetes centers in Italy were included. Women were older and more obese, with longer diabetes duration, higher total-cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C serum levels compared to men (P < 0.0001). Lipid profile was monitored in ~75% of subjects, women being monitored less frequently than men, irrespective of age. More women did not reach the LDL-C target as compared to men, particularly in the subgroup treated with lipid-lowering medications. The between-genders gap in reaching LDL-C targets increased with age and diabetes duration, favouring men in all groups.


LDL-C management is worst in women with T2DM, who are monitored and reach targets less frequently than T2DM men. Similarly to men, they do not receive medications despite high LDL-C. These gender discrepancies increase with age and diabetes duration, exposing older women to higher CHD risk.

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