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Sports (Basel). 2019 Jun 13;7(6). pii: E143. doi: 10.3390/sports7060143.

Accelerating Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Injuries in Triathletes: Considerations for Olympic Distance Races.

Author information

1
Department of Orthopedic, Trauma, Hand and Neuro Surgery, Klinikum Osnabrück GmbH, Osnabrück 49076, Germany. thilo.hotfiel@klinikum-os.de.
2
Deutsche Triathlon Union (DTU), Frankfurt 60528, Germany. thilo.hotfiel@klinikum-os.de.
3
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91054, Germany. thilo.hotfiel@klinikum-os.de.
4
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91054, Germany. isabel.mayer@gmx.de.
5
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91054, Germany. moritz.huettel@gmx.de.
6
Department of Orthopedic, Trauma, Hand and Neuro Surgery, Klinikum Osnabrück GmbH, Osnabrück 49076, Germany. matthias.hoppe@klinikum-os.de.
7
Department of Movement and Training Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal 42119, Germany. matthias.hoppe@klinikum-os.de.
8
Department of Orthopedic, Trauma, Hand and Neuro Surgery, Klinikum Osnabrück GmbH, Osnabrück 49076, Germany. martin.engelhardt@klinikum-os.de.
9
Deutsche Triathlon Union (DTU), Frankfurt 60528, Germany. martin.engelhardt@klinikum-os.de.
10
Department of Orthopedics, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock 18057, Germany. christoph.lutter@googlemail.com.
11
Department of Sports Orthopedics, Sports Medicine, Sports Traumatology, Klinikum Bamberg, Bamberg 96049, Germany. christoph.lutter@googlemail.com.
12
B·A·D Group, Darmstadt 64295, Germany. klaus@drpoettgen.de.
13
Department of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen 91054, Germany. rafael.heiss@klinikum-os.de.
14
Deutsche Triathlon Union (DTU), Frankfurt 60528, Germany. tom.kastner@iat.uni-leipzig.de.
15
Department of Sport Medicine Humboldt University and Charité University Medicine, Berlin 10117, Germany. tom.kastner@iat.uni-leipzig.de.
16
Institute for Applied Training Science Leipzig (IAT), Leipzig 04109, Germany. tom.kastner@iat.uni-leipzig.de.
17
Department of Orthopedic, Trauma, Hand and Neuro Surgery, Klinikum Osnabrück GmbH, Osnabrück 49076, Germany. casper.grim@klinikum-os.de.
18
Deutsche Triathlon Union (DTU), Frankfurt 60528, Germany. casper.grim@klinikum-os.de.

Abstract

The triathlon is one of the fastest developing sports in the world due to expanding participation and media attention. The fundamental change in Olympic triathlon races from a single to a multistart event is highly demanding in terms of recovery from and prevention of exercise-induced muscle injures. In elite and competitive sports, ultrastructural muscle injuries, including delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), are responsible for impaired muscle performance capacities. Prevention and treatment of these conditions have become key in regaining muscular performance levels and to guarantee performance and economy of motion in swimming, cycling and running. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current findings on the pathophysiology, as well as treatment and prevention of, these conditions in compliance with clinical implications for elite triathletes. In the context of DOMS, the majority of recovery interventions have focused on different protocols of compression, cold or heat therapy, active regeneration, nutritional interventions, or sleep. The authors agree that there is a compelling need for further studies, including high-quality randomized trials, to completely evaluate the effectiveness of existing therapeutic approaches, particularly in triathletes. The given recommendations must be updated and adjusted, as further evidence emerges.

KEYWORDS:

CWI; DOMS; EIMD; compression; endurance; muscle injuries; recovery; regeneration

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