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Int J Sports Med. 2011 Oct;32(10):801-6. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1279719. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

ACL injury mechanisms and related factors in male and female carving skiers: a retrospective study.

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University Innsbruck, Sport Science, Innsbruck, Austria.


In recreational alpine skiing, ACL injury risk is 3 times greater in females. However, since the introduction of carving skis ACL injury risk seems to have decreased. No study has yet investigated the distribution of ACL injury mechanisms in male and female carving skiers. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate potential gender specific differences of ACL injury mechanisms and related factors among carving skiers. In total, 220 recreational carving skiers (59 males and 161 females) suffering from an ACL injury volunteered for this study. Demographic data, skiing ability, equipment related and environmental factors, circumstances and causes for the fall, and type of fall (injury mechanisms) were collected by questionnaire. The forward twisting fall is the most reported ACL injury mechanism in both gender (p=0.672) accounting for 54% of all injuries, although male and female skiers differed significantly with regard to circumstances of fall (p=0.001) and actions when ACL injury occurred (p=0.04). Bindings not releasing at the time point of accident occurred 2.6 times more with females than with males (p=0.005). The forward twisting fall seems to have become the dominant ACL injury mechanism both in male and female recreational skiers since the introduction of carving skis.

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