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Metabolism. 2018 May;82:111-117. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2017.12.011. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

A whole-grain diet reduces peripheral insulin resistance and improves glucose kinetics in obese adults: A randomized-controlled trial.

Author information

1
Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States.
2
Analytical Sciences Department, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
3
Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States; Metabolic Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States. Electronic address: kirwanj@ccf.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes but the mechanisms are unclear.

PURPOSE:

We tested the hypothesis that a WG diet reduces insulin resistance and improves glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes compared with an isocaloric-matched refined-grain diet.

METHODS:

A double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of 14 moderately obese adults (Age, 38 ± 2 y; BMI, 34.0 ± 1.1 kg/m2). Insulin resistance and glucose metabolism was assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test combined with isotopic tracers of [6,6-2H2]-glucose and [U-13C]-glucose, and indirect calorimetry. Peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance was assessed as 1/(rate of disposal/insulin), and endogenous glucose rates of appearance (Ra) iAUC60-240 × insulin iAUC60-240, respectively. Both diets met ADA nutritional guidelines and contained either whole-grain (50 g per 1000 kcal) or equivalent refined-grain. All food was provided for 8 wk. with an 8-10 wk. washout period between diets.

RESULTS:

Post-prandial glucose tolerance, peripheral insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility (insulin-stimulated - fasting carbohydrate oxidation) improvements were greater after whole-grain compared to the refined-grain diet (P < 0.05). Compared to baseline, body fat (~2 kg) and hepatic Ra insulin resistance was reduced by both diets, while fasting glucose and exogenous glucose-meal were unchanged after both interventions. Changes in peripheral insulin resistance and metabolic flexibility correlated with improved glucose tolerance (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

Whole-grains reduced diabetes risk and the mechanisms appear to work through reduced post-prandial blood glucose and peripheral insulin resistance that were statistically linked to enhanced metabolic flexibility.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01411540.

KEYWORDS:

Alkylresorcinols; Glucose tolerance; Insulin; Low-glycemic diet; Obesity

PMID:
29305946
PMCID:
PMC5930046
DOI:
10.1016/j.metabol.2017.12.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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