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Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 7;7:45780. doi: 10.1038/srep45780.

A staged screening of registered drugs highlights remyelinating drug candidates for clinical trials.

Author information

1
Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Rome, Italy.
2
Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Monserrato 09042, Italy.
3
Center for Experimental Neurological Therapies, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs (NESMOS), Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
4
Department of Medical Science, Section of Pharmacology and National Institute of Neuroscience, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.
5
IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo (INM) Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli, IS, Italy.

Abstract

There is no treatment for the myelin loss in multiple sclerosis, ultimately resulting in the axonal degeneration that leads to the progressive phase of the disease. We established a multi-tiered platform for the sequential screening of drugs that could be repurposed as remyelinating agents. We screened a library of 2,000 compounds (mainly Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved compounds and natural products) for cellular metabolic activity on mouse oligodendrocyte precursors (OPC), identifying 42 molecules with significant stimulating effects. We then characterized the effects of these compounds on OPC proliferation and differentiation in mouse glial cultures, and on myelination and remyelination in organotypic cultures. Three molecules, edaravone, 5-methyl-7-methoxyisoflavone and lovastatin, gave positive results in all screening tiers. We validated the results by retesting independent stocks of the compounds, analyzing their purity, and performing dose-response curves. To identify the chemical features that may be modified to enhance the compounds' activity, we tested chemical analogs and identified, for edaravone, the functional groups that may be essential for its activity. Among the selected remyelinating candidates, edaravone appears to be of strong interest, also considering that this drug has been approved as a neuroprotective agent for acute ischemic stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Japan.

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