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Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1996 Oct;417:33-8.

Common mutations in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 account for achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia.

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1
Service de Génétique, INSERM U393, Hôpital des Enfants Malades, Paris, France.

Abstract

The mapping of the achondroplasia locus to the short arm of chromosome 4 and the subsequent identification of a recurrent missense mutation (Gly380Arg) in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR-3) has been followed by the detection of common FGFR-3 mutations in two clinically related disorders: thanatophoric dysplasia (TD; types I and II) and hypochondroplasia. The relative clinical homogeneity of achondroplasia was substantiated by demonstration of its genetic homogeneity: 100% of patients examined exhibited mutations in the transmembrane domain of FGFR-3. Although most cases of hypochondroplasia were accounted for by a recurrent missense substitution (Asn540Lys) in the first tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR-3, a significant proportion (40%) of the patients in the present study did not possess this Asn540Lys mutation. Furthermore, in three families with hypochondroplasia, the genetic defect was not linked to the FGFR-3 locus, thus supporting the clinical heterogeneity of this disease. In TD, a recurrent mutation located in the second tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR-3 has been detected in all TDII patients. By contrast, seven distinct mutations in three different protein domains were identified in 25 out of 26 TDI patients in this study. This suggests that TD, like achondroplasia, is a genetically homogeneous skeletal disorder.

PMID:
9055906
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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