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Am J Med Genet. 1996 May 3;63(1):148-54.

Common mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR 3) gene account for achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dwarfism.

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Service de Génétique, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France.


The mapping of the achondroplasia locus to the short arm of chromosome 4 and the subsequent identification of a recurrent missense mutation (G380R) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR-3) gene has been followed by the detection of common FGFR-3 mutations in two clinically related disorders: thanatophoric dwarfism (types I and II) and hypochondroplasia. The relative clinical homogeneity of achondroplasia was substantiated by demonstration of its genetic homogeneity as more than 98% of all patients hitherto reported exhibit mutations in the transmembrane receptor domain. Although most hypochondroplasia cases were accounted for by a recurrent missense substitution (N540K) in the first tyrosine kinase (TK 1) domain of the receptor, a significant proportion (40%) of our patients did not harbor the N540K mutation and three hypochondroplasia families were not linked to the FGFR-3 locus, thus supporting clinical heterogeneity of this condition. In thanatophoric dwarfism (TD), a recurrent FGFR-3 mutation located in the second tyrosine kinase (TK 2) domain of the receptor was originally detected in 100% of TD II cases, our series seven distinct mutations in three different protein domains were identified in 25 of 26 TD I patients, suggesting that TD, like achondroplasia, is a genetically homogenous skeletal disorder.

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