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Protein Eng. 1995 Jul;8(7):677-91.

Empirical free energy calculations of ligand-protein crystallographic complexes. I. Knowledge-based ligand-protein interaction potentials applied to the prediction of human immunodeficiency virus 1 protease binding affinity.

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Agouron Pharmaceuticals Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-1121, USA.


The steadily increasing number of high-resolution human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 protease complexes has been the impetus for the elaboration of knowledge-based mean field ligand-protein interaction potentials. These potentials have been linked with the hydrophobicity and conformational entropy scales developed originally to explain protein folding and stability. Empirical free energy calculations of a diverse set of HIV-1 protease crystallographic complexes have enabled a detailed analysis of binding thermodynamics. The thermodynamic consequences of conformational changes that HIV-1 protease undergoes upon binding to all inhibitors, and a substantial concomitant loss of conformational entropy by the part of HIV-1 protease that forms the ligand-protein interface, have been examined. The quantitative breakdown of the entropy-driven changes occurring during ligand-protein association, such as the hydrophobic contribution, the conformational entropy term and the entropy loss due to a reduction of rotational and translational degrees of freedom, of a system composed to ligand, protein and crystallographic water molecules at the ligand-protein interface has been carried out. The proposed approach provides reasonable estimates of distinctions in binding affinity and gives an insight into the nature of enthalpyentropy compensation factors detected in the binding process.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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