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Int J Cardiol. 2013 Jun 20;166(2):289-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.04.043. Epub 2012 May 15.

Discourse on pulse in medieval Persia--the Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni (?-983 A D.).

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Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


In a period of compilation, original observations and expansion (900-1100 A.D.), Persians described new clinical manifestations of the diseases and expanded the earlier knowledge of materia medica. In the epoch of the Arabic language domination in the scientific literature of this period, advent of medical authors to write in Farsi shined in the Persian principalities. Akhawayani Bokhari was by far the most outstanding scholar of the time who wrote one of the earliest pandects of medicine of the period, the Hidayat al-Mutallimin fi al-Tibb (Learner's Guide to Medicine) in new Persian. The Hidayat is a relatively short and simplified digest of medicine at the time providing a glimpse of high level of medical education at the Samanid period (819-999). The present article is a translation of the sections of the Hidayat related to the pulse and its characters and conditions affecting the pulse in an attempt to increase our knowledge of the medicine, and particularly the pulse examination throughout the medieval era.

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