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Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2020 Mar 1;12:183-198.

Effects of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on gastrointestinal health.

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University Guglielmo Marconi, University of Salerno, Italy.
University Guglielmo Marconi, University of Salerno, Italy,


Gastrointestinal (GI) health of newborns is maintained by the gastrointestinal microbiome, and the PNEI (psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology) system and can be altered by the delivery mode of the milk to the newborn such as breast versus bottle feeding, exposure to antibiotics in the milk, or exposure to environmental pollutants. The health of GI tract is particularly is maintained by breast feeding since the maternal milk provides micro- and macronutrients essential to growth, as well as multifunctional small oligosaccharides, particularly, 2'-fucosyllactose which maintain the GI health.


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