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Immunity. 2019 Nov 19;51(5):794-811. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2019.09.020.

Western Diet and the Immune System: An Inflammatory Connection.

Author information

1
Institute of Innate Immunity, University Hospital Bonn, University of Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany; Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
2
Institute of Innate Immunity, University Hospital Bonn, University of Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany.
3
Institute of Innate Immunity, University Hospital Bonn, University of Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany; Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA; Center of Molecular Inflammation Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491, Norway; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn 53127, Germany. Electronic address: eicke.latz@uni-bonn.de.

Abstract

The consumption of Western-type calorically rich diets combined with chronic overnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle in Western societies evokes a state of chronic metabolic inflammation, termed metaflammation. Metaflammation contributes to the development of many prevalent non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and these lifestyle-associated pathologies represent a rising public health problem with global epidemic dimensions. A better understanding of how modern lifestyle and Western diet (WD) activate immune cells is essential for the development of efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies for common NCDs. Here, we review the current mechanistic understanding of how the Western lifestyle can induce metaflammation, and we discuss how this knowledge can be translated to protect the public from the health burden associated with their selected lifestyle.

KEYWORDS:

Western diet; Western-type diets; cellular crosstalk; epigenetic reprogramming; immunometabolism; innate immune memory; metabolic diseases; metaflammation; microbiome; non-communicable diseases; trained immunity

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