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Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019 Oct 2;7:208. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2019.00208. eCollection 2019.

NOD Signaling and Cell Death.

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The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
Gene Center and Department of Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.


Innate immune signaling and programmed cell death are intimately linked, and many signaling pathways can regulate and induce both, transcription of inflammatory mediators or autonomous cell death. The best-characterized examples for these dual outcomes are members of the TNF superfamily, the inflammasome receptors, and the toll-like receptors. Signaling via the intracellular peptidoglycan receptors NOD1 and NOD2, however, does not appear to follow this trend, despite involving signaling proteins, or proteins with domains that are linked to programmed cell death, such as RIP kinases, inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins or the CARD domains on NOD1/2. To better understand the connections between NOD signaling and cell death induction, we here review the latest findings on the molecular regulation of signaling downstream of the NOD receptors and explore the links between this immune signaling pathway and the regulation of cell death.


NOD2; RIPK2; cell signaling; inflammation; ubiquitin

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