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J Neurosurg. 2019 Oct 18:1-9. doi: 10.3171/2019.7.JNS182435. [Epub ahead of print]

Association of decreased levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein with OKN-007-induced regression of tumor growth in an F98 rat glioma model.

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1Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and.
2Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.



High-grade gliomas, such as glioblastoma (GBM), are devastating tumors with a very poor prognosis. Previously the authors have found that the nitrone compound OKN-007 (OKlahoma Nitrone 007; or disodium 4-[(tert-butyl-imino) methyl] benzene-1,3-disulfonate N-oxide) is effective against high-grade gliomas in various GBM rodent and human xenograft models. The purpose of the present study was to assess the levels of the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) in rodent gliomas treated with OKN-007 as well as determine the expression of LBP in human gliomas.


Microarray analysis was done to assess altered gene expression following OKN-007 administration in an F98 glioma model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was incorporated to assess LBP levels in glioma tissues, as well as blood serum, comparing results in OKN-007-treated and untreated tumor-bearing animals. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess LBP levels in varying grades of human glioma tissue sections.


Upon further assessment of gene expression fold changes in F98 gliomas in rats that received or did not receive OKN-007, it was found that the gene for LBP was significantly downregulated by OKN-007. Further investigation was done to see whether levels of LBP were affected by OKN-007 treatment in F98 gliomas. It was found that LBP could be detected not only in glioma tissue but also in blood serum of F98 glioma-bearing rats and that OKN-007 decreased the levels of LBP. It was also found that LBP levels are highly expressed in human high-grade glioma tissues.


LBP could potentially be used as a serum diagnostic marker of treatment response in high-grade gliomas.


ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; F98 rat glioma; GBM; GBM = glioblastoma; IHC = immunohistochemistry; LBP = lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; LPS = lipopolysaccharide; OKN-007; TGF-β1 = transforming growth factor–β1; glioblastoma; high-grade gliomas; lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; oncology


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