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Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2019 Jul 31;57(2):107-112.

Cytokines and nervous system: relationship with schizophrenia

[Article in Spanish; Abstract available in Spanish from the publisher]

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Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, División de Neurociencias, Neuroinmunomodulación. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México


in English, Spanish

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder of mental symptoms and alterations, characterized by presenting abnormal ideas and perceptions, in which the individual loses contact with reality as a result of a complex neuropsychological disorganization, which affects the affective, intellectual and behavioral functioning; as well as inducing a significant social dysfunction. The etiology of schizophrenia is extremely complex, and is not very clear yet; it is believed to be the result of the combination of genetic factors and the environment. Numerous neurotransmitters have been implicated in this disease, as is the case of dopamine, serotonin and glutamate. The role of the inflammatory process in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been postulated, where a prenatal immune "challenge" during the second trimester of pregnancy can be key to the development of the disease. Some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6) play a key role in the processes of modulation of the nervous system functions related to affective, emotional and social alterations in subjects with schizophrenia. The mechanisms associated with inflammation and the anti-inflammatory defense system that may be associated with the development of schizophrenia are still unknown. This review was intended to address schizophrenia, in regards to the mechanisms associated with inflammation and the anti-inflammatory defense system in its development.


Schizophrenia; Cytokines; Neurotransmitter Agents; Inflammation; Nervous System


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