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Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2020 Jan 1;25:874-892.

Applications of RNA from circulating tumor cells.

Author information

1
School of Biomedical Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Translational Research Institute.37 Kent St, Woolloongabba QLD 4102, sara.hassan@hdr.qut.edu.au.
2
School of Biomedical Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Translational Research Institute.37 Kent St, Woolloongabba QLD 4102.

Abstract

Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream from both primary and secondary tumours and provide a non-invasive means to study tumor progression and response to treatment. Assessment of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and monitoring dynamic changes in gene expression profiles of CTCs extends their clinical and prognostic power and establish their role in guiding treatment. Among these methods, droplet digital (RT-ddPCR) technique provides a high sensitivity and detectibility of CTCs. RNA-sequencing (RNAseq) is the most comprehensive method, that would allow the simultaneous measurement of a large number of genes and theoretically the whole transcriptome. Since CTCs are heterogeneous in nature, single cell RNAseq methods are very valuable in assessing population dynamics and functional states of CTCs. While RNA in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) is used relatively less frequently, it also allows for the assessment of expression of multiple genes within individual CTCs. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a major contributor to metastasis, providing a mechanism to allow cells to become migratory and invasive, and to survive in the bloodstream. Monitoring CTCs undergoing EMT may lead to improvement in their prognostic and predictive power. Here, we review various RNA analysis of CTCs and those that undergo EMT and their application in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancers.

PMID:
31585921

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