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Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2020 Jan 1;25:817-837.

Oral and dermal toxicity of alkenones extracted from Isochrysis species.

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The University of Toledo; MS1015, 3000 Arlington Av, Toledo OH 43614.
The University of Toledo; MS1015, 3000 Arlington Av, Toledo OH 436.
Pontificia Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, Santo Domingo, DR.
St. John's University; 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens NY 11432.
Woods Whole Oceanographic Institution; Massechussets, 02543.
Western Washington University; Bellingham, Washington 98225.
Auburn University; Auburn Alabama 36849.
The University of Toledo; MS1015, 3000 Arlington Av, Toledo OH 43614,


Isochrysis is commercially available marine algae used for animal feed, human nutrient supplements, and biodiesel. The Isochrysis species is one of five genera of haptophytes that produces unique, long-chain lipids known as alkenones that are promising new ingredients for green cosmetics, personal care products and pharmaceutical delivery. However, there is a lack of toxicity data for alkenones in animals, thus limiting their use in humans. In this study, we performed acute oral, acute dermal, and repeated 28-day dermal toxicity studies, using female SAS Sprague Dawley Rats. Our behavioral studies indicated that the specific alkenones had no overt behavioural effects at oral doses up to 4000 mg/kg. In the acute and chronic dermal toxicity studies, the alkenones produced less irritation and did not significantly damage the skin based on the Draize skin reaction scale and trans-epidermal water loss readings compared to the positive control, 1% sodium lauryl sulfate. Overall, our results indicated that alkenones are safe in Sprague Dawley rats, suggesting that they could be used for both oral and dermal formulations, although additional studies will be required.


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