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Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 19;20(18). pii: E4649. doi: 10.3390/ijms20184649.

Retinal Ganglion Cell Death as a Late Remodeling Effect of Photoreceptor Degeneration.

Author information

1
Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, and Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Virgen de la Arrixaca), 30120 Murcia, Spain. diegogarcia@um.es.
2
Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, and Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Virgen de la Arrixaca), 30120 Murcia, Spain. johnnydp@um.es.
3
Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, and Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Virgen de la Arrixaca), 30120 Murcia, Spain. manuel.vidal@um.es.
4
Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, and Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Virgen de la Arrixaca), 30120 Murcia, Spain. mpville@um.es.

Abstract

Inherited or acquired photoreceptor degenerations, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness in the world, are a group of retinal disorders that initially affect rods and cones, situated in the outer retina. For many years it was assumed that these diseases did not spread to the inner retina. However, it is now known that photoreceptor loss leads to an unavoidable chain of events that cause neurovascular changes in the retina including migration of retinal pigment epithelium cells, formation of "subretinal vascular complexes", vessel displacement, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal strangulation by retinal vessels, axonal transport alteration and, ultimately, RGC death. These events are common to all photoreceptor degenerations regardless of the initial trigger and thus threaten the outcome of photoreceptor substitution as a therapeutic approach, because with a degenerating inner retina, the photoreceptor signal will not reach the brain. In conclusion, therapies should be applied early in the course of photoreceptor degeneration, before the remodeling process reaches the inner retina.

KEYWORDS:

axonal compression; cones; neurovascular alterations; retinal degeneration; retinal ganglion cells; retinal remodeling

PMID:
31546829
PMCID:
PMC6770703
DOI:
10.3390/ijms20184649
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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