Send to

Choose Destination
J Radiol Prot. 2019 Sep 11. doi: 10.1088/1361-6498/ab437d. [Epub ahead of print]

A Monte Carlo model for organ dose reconstruction of patients in Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) proton therapy for epidemiologic studies of late effects.

Author information

National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, UNITED STATES.
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, UNITED STATES.
Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, UNITED STATES.
Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland, 20850, UNITED STATES.
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, UNITED STATES.
Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, UNITED STATES.
East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, UNITED STATES.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, UNITED STATES.
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, UNITED STATES.
Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, UNITED STATES.


Significant efforts such as the Pediatric Proton/Photon Consortium Registry (PPCR) involving multiple proton therapy centers have been made to conduct collaborative studies evaluating outcomes following proton therapy. As a groundwork dosimetry effort for the late effect investigation, we developed a Monte Carlo (MC) model of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) to estimate organ/tissue doses of pediatric patients at the Maryland Proton Treatment Center (MPTC), one of the proton centers involved in the PPCR. The MC beam modeling was performed using the TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation) MC code and commissioned to match measurement data within 1% for range and 0.3 mm for spot sizes. The established MC model was then tested by calculating organ/tissue doses for sample intracranial and craniospinal irradiations on whole-body pediatric computational human phantoms. The simulated dose distributions were compared with the treatment planning system dose distributions, showing the 3mm/3% gamma index passing rates of 94-99%, validating our simulations with the MC model. The calculated organ/tissue doses per prescribed doses for the craniospinal irradiations (1 mGy Gy-1 to 1 Gy Gy-1) were generally much higher than those for the intracranial irradiations (2.1 µGy Gy-1 to 0.1 Gy Gy-1), which is due to the larger field coverage of the craniospinal irradiations. The largest difference was observed at the adrenal dose, i.e., ~3000 times. In addition, the calculated organ/tissue doses were compared with those calculated with a simplified MC model, showing that the beam properties (i.e., spot size, spot divergence, mean energy, and energy spread) do not significantly influence dose calculations despite the limited irradiation cases. This implies that the use of the MC model commissioned to the MPTC measurement data might be dosimetrically acceptable for patient dose reconstructions at other proton centers particularly when their measurement data are unavailable. The developed MC model will be used to reconstruct organ/tissue doses for MPTC pediatric patients collected in the PPCR.


Dose reconstruction; Monte Carlo; Pencil beam scanning; proton


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for IOP Publishing Ltd.
Loading ...
Support Center