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Int J Pharm. 2019 Oct 30;570:118654. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.118654. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Glycine microparticles loaded with functionalized nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia; Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.
Central Clinical School, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia; Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.
School of Health and Biomedical Sciences and Enabling Capability Platforms, Biomedical and Health Innovation, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3083, Australia. Electronic address:
Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia. Electronic address:


The use of nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery poses challenges such as the presence of anatomical barriers and the loss of bioactive components. Excipients are often used to facilitate delivery. Excipients suitable for nanoparticle delivery are still being explored. Herein we introduce for the first time, spray-dried glycine microparticle-based excipients loaded with nanoparticles of the size range known to be taken up by alveolar macrophages. Using a microfluidic jet spray dryer, we produced glycine microparticles-based excipients which are spherical, uniform, cenospheric (hollow at core), and "coral-like" with average diameter of 60 ± 10 μm, 29 ± 0.8% porosity, and showed their effective loading with glycine coated iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (GSPIONs). Our loading protocol with nanoparticles further increased microsphere porosity and improved aerodynamic performance unlike the dense, solid commercial excipient, Lactohale200™. This demonstrates a feasible approach for delivery of such nanoparticles in the lung.


Glycine microparticle-based excipient; Inhalation; Iron oxide nanoparticles; Spray drying

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