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J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2020 Mar 19;12(1):79-85. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2019.0080. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Effects of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural on Pubertal Development of Female Wistar Rats

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University of Health Sciences Turkey, Dr. Sami Ulus Children Training and Research Hospital, Clinic of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ankara, Turkey
University of Health Sciences Turkey, Gülhane Training and Research Hospital, Clinic of Pathology, Ankara, Turkey
Gazi University, Laboratory Animal Breeding and Experimental Researches Center, Ankara, Turkey
Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Samsun, Turkey
University of Health Sciences Turkey, Ankara Children Diseases Hematology and Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Clinic of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ankara, Turkey



5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed when sugars are heated in the presence of amino acids. HMF is naturally present in many foods. To investigate the toxic effects of HMF on the reproductive system of peripubertal rats.


In the study, 24 immature female Wistar rat were divided into three groups: control (CT) fed with no HMF; low dose fed with 750 mg/kg/day of HMF and high dose (HD) groups fed with 1500 mg/kg/day of HMF. All groups received these diets for three weeks from postnatal day (PND) 21. The vaginal opening (VO) was monitored daily and euthanasia occurred on PND 44. Gonadotropin, estradiol (E2), progesterone and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations were measured. Reproductive organ weights and ovarian follicle counts were compared.


The HD HMF group had earlier VO. Higher mean luteinising hormone (2.9±1.2 vs 1.3±0.3 mIU/mL) and mean E2 (34.7±8.8 vs 21.2±3.9 pg/mL) and lower mean AMH (2.7±0.5 vs 4.7±0.7 ng/mL) concentrations were found in the HD compared to the CT group. The HD group also had increased number of secondary atrophic follicles.


These results indicate that peripubertal exposure to HMF at HD result in precocious puberty and decreased AMH levels in female Wistar rats.


Hydroxymethylfurfural; puberty; vaginal opening; rat; anti-Müllerian hormone

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