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J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2020 Mar 19;12(1):86-94. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2019.0087. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Assessment of Bisphenol A Levels in Preschool Children: Results of a Human Biomonitoring Study in Ankara, Turkey

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Gazi University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology, Ankara, Turkey
Mersin University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology, Mersin, Turkey



There is general concern regarding environmental chemical exposure and the impact it may have on human health. This is particularly important for vulnerable populations such as infants and children during critical periods of development. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical used worldwide over the last 30 years in many consumer products. Evidence points to widespread human exposure to BPA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of Turkish preschool children to BPA.


This study was conducted as a preliminary investigation of BPA in urine, collected from 3-6 year old children living in Ankara. After spot urine samples were taken from preschool children, free BPA, β-D-glucuronide and total BPA were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and adjusted by creatinine concentration.


Preschool children from Ankara (n=125; males n=70, females n=55; mean age: 4.50±1.26) were recruited. BPA was detected in 76.8% of children from Ankara city, with urinary concentrations ranging from < limit of quantification to 18.36 μg/g creatinine. Total BPA levels were not statistically different between boys (1.26 μg/g creatinine) and girls (2.24 μg/g creatinine) (p>0.05).


This study is an important contribution to the limited information about childhood exposure to BPA. The estimated daily BPA intake in this study is substantially lower than the European Food Safety Authority derived tolerable daily intake of 4 μg/kg BW/day.


urine; children; Turkey; Bisphenol A; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

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