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J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2020 Mar 19;12(1):63-70. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2019.0082. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Macular Variability in Children and Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study Examining the Associations with Anthropometric Measurements, Metabolic Parameters and Inflammatory Markers

Author information

1
University of Health Sciences Turkey, İzmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Clinic of Ophthalmology, İzmir, Turkey
2
İzmir Katip Çelebi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, İzmir, Turkey

Abstract

Objective:

Macular damage may be observed in obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS), a condition which leads to chronic subclinical inflammation and affects most organ systems. To investigate the association between macular variability and anthropometric measurements, metabolic parameters, and inflammatory markers in children and adolescents with MetS.

Methods:

Two hundred and twenty eyes of 62 obese and 48 healthy children and adolescents were examined. Bilateral macular retinal thickness (MRT) and macular retinal volume (MRV) were measured in all subjects using optical coherence tomography. Associations between mean MRT and mean MRV and age, auxological measurements including body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) and waist circumference-SDS (WC-SDS), metabolic parameters and inflammatory parameters including neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio and systemic immune-inflammatory index (SIII) were investigated.

Results:

No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of age or sex distribution (p>0.05). Mean MRT (r=-0.326, p=0.007) and MRV (r=-0.303, p=0.007) values in the obese group with MetS decreased as homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values increased. SIII values were higher in obese groups, but particularly in obese subject with MetS, compared to the control group (p=0.021). The decrease in mean MRT (r=-0.544, p=0.046) and MRV (r=-0.651, p=0.031) in the obese subjects with MetS was negatively correlated with NLR. Mean MRT and MRV decreased in all obese subjects as SIII increased (p<0.05).

Conclusion:

This is the first study to show that mean MRT and MRV values decrease as BMI-SDS, WC-SDS and HOMA-IR increase in obese children and adolescents with MetS. NLR and SIII may serve as markers of chronic inflammation in obese children with MetS associated with macular damage.

KEYWORDS:

Macular retinal thickness; macular retinal volume; metabolic syndrome; optical coherence tomography; pediatric obesity

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