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Genome Biol Evol. 2019 Sep 1;11(9):2505-2516. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evz174.

Successful Invasions of Short Internally Deleted Elements (SIDEs) and Its Partner CR1 in Lepidoptera Insects.

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College of Pharmacy and Life Science, Jiujiang University, China.
Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, Università di Bologna, Italy.
Clinical Medical College, Jiujiang University, China.


Although DNA transposons often generated internal deleted derivatives such as miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements, short internally deleted elements (SIDEs) derived from nonlong terminal-repeat retrotransposons are rare. Here, we found a novel SIDE, named Persaeus, that originated from the chicken repeat 1 (CR1) retrotransposon Zenon and it has been found widespread in Lepidoptera insects. Our findings suggested that Persaeus and the partner Zenon have experienced a transposition burst in their host genomes and the copy number of Persaeus and Zenon in assayed genomes are significantly correlated. Accordingly, the activity though age analysis indicated that the replication wave of Persaeus coincided with that of Zenon. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that Persaeus may have evolved at least four times independently, and that it has been vertically transferred into its host genomes. Together, our results provide new insights into the evolution dynamics of SIDEs and its partner non-LTRs.


Lepidoptera; chicken repeat 1 (CR1); long interspersed element (LINE); short internally deleted element (SIDE); transposable elements evolutionary dynamics; vertical inheritance


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