Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Genomics. 2019 Jul 29;20(1):616. doi: 10.1186/s12864-019-5984-7.

An insight into the sialome, mialome and virome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

Author information

Section of Vector Biology, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway Room 3E28, Rockville, MD, 20852, USA.
Instituto de Patología Vegetal, Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (IPAVE-CIAP-INTA), Córdoba, Argentina.
Unidad de Reactivos y Biomodelos de Experimentación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Gral. Flores, 2125, Montevideo, Uruguay.



The horn fly (Haematobia irritans) is an obligate blood feeder that causes considerable economic losses in livestock industries worldwide. The control of this cattle pest is mainly based on insecticides; unfortunately, in many regions, horn flies have developed resistance. Vaccines or biological control have been proposed as alternative control methods, but the available information about the biology or physiology of this parasite is rather scarce.


We present a comprehensive description of the salivary and midgut transcriptomes of the horn fly (Haematobia irritans), using deep sequencing achieved by the Illumina protocol, as well as exploring the virome of this fly. Comparison of the two transcriptomes allow for identification of uniquely salivary or uniquely midgut transcripts, as identified by statistically differential transcript expression at a level of 16 x or more. In addition, we provide genomic highlights and phylogenetic insights of Haematobia irritans Nora virus and present evidence of a novel densovirus, both associated to midgut libraries of H. irritans.


We provide a catalog of protein sequences associated with the salivary glands and midgut of the horn fly that will be useful for vaccine design. Additionally, we discover two midgut-associated viruses that infect these flies in nature. Future studies should address the prevalence, biological effects and life cycles of these viruses, which could eventually lead to translational work oriented to the control of this economically important cattle pest.


Vector biology; horn fly; malaria; midgut; salivary glands; transcriptome; virus

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center