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Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2019 Oct;1866(10):1567-1583. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2019.06.017. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Status update on iRhom and ADAM17: It's still complicated.

Author information

1
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany; Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany. Electronic address: sduesterhoeft@ukaachen.de.
2
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany; Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
3
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany; Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany. Electronic address: aludwig@ukaachen.de.

Abstract

Several membrane-bound proteins with a single transmembrane domain are subjected to limited proteolysis at the cell surface. This cleavage leads to the release of their biologically active ectodomains, which can trigger different signalling pathways. In many cases, this ectodomain shedding is mediated by members of the family of a disintegrins and metalloproteinases (ADAMs). ADAM17 in particular is responsible for the cleavage of several proinflammatory mediators, growth factors, receptors and adhesion molecules. Due to its direct involvement in the release of these signalling molecules, ADAM17 can be positively and negatively involved in various physiological processes as well as in inflammatory, fibrotic and malignant pathologies. This central role of ADAM17 in a variety of processes requires strict multi-level regulation, including phosphorylation, various conformational changes and endogenous inhibitors. Recent research has shown that an early, crucial control mechanism is interaction with certain adapter proteins identified as iRhom1 and iRhom2, which are pseudoproteases of the rhomboid superfamily. Thus, iRhoms have also a decisive influence on physiological and pathophysiological signalling processes regulated by ADAM17. Their characteristic gene expression profiles, the specific consequences of gene knockouts and finally the occurrence of disease-associated mutations suggest that iRhom1 and iRhom2 undergo different gene regulation in order to fulfil their function in different cell types and are therefore only partially redundant. Therefore, there is not only interest in ADAM17, but also in iRhoms as therapeutic targets. However, to exploit the therapeutic potential, the regulation of ADAM17 activity and in particular its interaction with iRhoms must be well understood.

KEYWORDS:

Inflammation; Limited proteolysis; Metalloproteinase; Protein maturation; Rhomboid; Shedding

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