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Cell Stem Cell. 2019 Jun 6;24(6):877-894. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2019.05.016.

Design Approaches for Generating Organ Constructs.

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Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 11 Mandalay Road, Singapore 308232, Singapore. Electronic address:
Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:


Organ constructs are organ-like structures grown in vitro or in vivo that harbor the components, architecture, and function of in vivo organs, in part or in toto. The convergence of stem cell biology, bioengineering, and gene editing tools have substantially broadened our ability to generate various types of organ constructs for regenerative medicine as well as to address pressing biomedical questions. In this Review, we highlight prevailing approaches for generating organ constructs, from organoids to chimeric organ engineering. We also discuss design principles of different approaches, their utility and limitations, and propose strategies to resolve existing hurdles.


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