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J Vasc Surg. 2019 Dec;70(6):1851-1861. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2019.02.028. Epub 2019 May 27.

The effect of the duration of preoperative smoking cessation timing on outcomes after elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and lower extremity bypass.

Author information

1
Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass.
2
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Steward Healthcare, Norwood Hospital, Norwood, Mass.
3
Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Interventions, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.
4
Department of Statistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Mass.
5
Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address: jeffrey.siracuse@bmc.org.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Smoking has been associated with poor postoperative outcomes across various surgical procedures. However, the effect of quitting smoking preoperatively for elective operations is unclear. Our goal was to assess the temporal effect of smoking cessation before elective lower extremity bypass (LEB) and open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair on perioperative outcomes.

METHODS:

The Vascular Quality Initiative was reviewed for all patients with a documented smoking history and who underwent an elective LEB or open AAA repair from 2010 to 2017. Patients were then categorized into three groups: long-term smoking cessation (LTSC; defined as quitting smoking ≥8 weeks before surgery), short-term smoking cessation (STSC; defined as quitting smoking < 8 weeks before surgery), and current smokers (CS). Patient and procedure details were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis for crude and propensity-matched data were used to compare outcomes among groups.

RESULTS:

We identified 15,950 patients with a documented smoking history who underwent an elective LEB (43.3% LTSC, 2.2% STSC, 54.5% CS) and 5215 patients who underwent an elective open AAA repair (42.9% LTSC, 2.4% STSC, 54.7% CS). LTSC patients compared with STSC and CS, respectively, were more often obese, diabetic, on aspirin, on a statin, had coronary artery disease, and had congestive heart failure, but were less likely to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (all P < .05). Perioperative outcomes demonstrated significant differences comparing LTSC with STSC and CS for myocardial infarction (3.4% vs 1.4% vs 1.4%), dysrhythmia (4.2% vs 2.5% vs 2.7%), 30-day mortality (1.6% vs .3% vs .9%), in-hospital mortality (1.1% vs 0% vs 0.5%; all P < .001) and congestive heart failure (1.8% vs .8% vs 1.5%; P = .003). There was no difference in outcomes after analysis of propensity-matched data for LTSC or STSC on any postoperative outcomes for LEB. For open AAA repair, LTSC compared with CS patients, respectively, were older, more often male, obese, on a statin, diabetic, and less frequently had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < .05 for all). Perioperative outcomes demonstrated differences in pulmonary complications when comparing LTSC with STSC and CS (9.5% vs 8.0% vs 12.5%; P = .002). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that LTSC patients compared with CS were less likely to experience pulmonary complications (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.79; P < .001). Propensity-matched multivariate analysis confirmed that LTSC remained significantly less likely to encounter pulmonary complications (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.74; P = .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

In our propensity-matched, risk-adjusted cohort, LTSC and STSC were not associated with perioperative outcomes after elective LEB. LTSC was associated with a significantly decreased odds of pulmonary complications after elective open AAA repair. STSC was not associated with perioperative outcomes after elective open AAA repair. If time permits, a longer period of smoking cessation should be attempted before elective open AAA repair.

KEYWORDS:

Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Lower extremity bypass; Smoking cessation; Temporal; Vascular surgery

PMID:
31147124
DOI:
10.1016/j.jvs.2019.02.028

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