Send to

Choose Destination
Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2019 Jun 1;11:214-235.

Detection to treatment and global impacts of algal toxins.

Author information

School of Engineering and Science, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N.L., 64849, Mexico,
Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering and Robert M. Kerr Food and Agricultural Products Center, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 74075, USA
Manatee Holdings Ltd, 4097 Gartelay Point Road, Courtenay, BC V9N9T2, Canada.
School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, 64849, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Harmful algal blooms in the past three decades appear to have grown in incidence, intensity and geographical distribution with negative impacts on public health and economy values. Each year the algal biotoxins are responsible for more than 60.000 intoxications with an associated mortality rate of 1.5%. The present review summarizes current knowledge and perspectives on marine and freshwater algal toxins with an emphasis on different genus of algae capable to produce toxins and their physiology. The typologies of toxins, their chemical structure and mechanisms of action, the factors that stimulate their biosynthesis and the current techniques used for algal toxins removal will be also reviewed.


Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center