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Biophys J. 2019 Jun 4;116(11):2212-2223. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2019.04.031. Epub 2019 May 3.

Mechanisms of Calcium Leak from Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Revealed by Statistical Mechanics.

Author information

1
School of Mathematics, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
2
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Biomedical Research Center, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland.
3
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Biomedical Research Center, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address: maltsevvi@mail.nih.gov.

Abstract

Heart muscle contraction is normally activated by a synchronized Ca release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), a major intracellular Ca store. However, under abnormal conditions, Ca leaks from the SR, decreasing heart contraction amplitude and increasing risk of life-threatening arrhythmia. The mechanisms and regimes of SR operation generating the abnormal Ca leak remain unclear. Here, we employed both numerical and analytical modeling to get mechanistic insights into the emergent Ca leak phenomenon. Our numerical simulations using a detailed realistic model of the Ca release unit reveal sharp transitions resulting in Ca leak. The emergence of leak is closely mapped mathematically to the Ising model from statistical mechanics. The system steady-state behavior is determined by two aggregate parameters: the analogs of magnetic field (h) and the inverse temperature (β) in the Ising model, for which we have explicit formulas in terms of SR [Ca] and release channel opening and closing rates. The classification of leak regimes takes the shape of a phase β-h diagram, with the regime boundaries occurring at h = 0 and a critical value of β (β) that we estimate using a classical Ising model and mean field theory. Our theory predicts that a synchronized Ca leak will occur when h > 0 and β >β, and a disordered leak occurs when β <β and h is not too negative. The disorder leak is distinguished from synchronized leak (in long-lasting sparks) by larger Peierls contour lengths, an output parameter reflecting degree of disorder. Thus, in addition to our detailed numerical model approach, we also offer an instantaneous computational tool using analytical formulas of the Ising model for respective ryanodine receptor parameters and SR Ca load that describe and classify phase transitions and leak emergence.

PMID:
31103231
PMCID:
PMC6554640
[Available on 2020-06-04]
DOI:
10.1016/j.bpj.2019.04.031

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