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Environ Pollut. 2019 Aug;251:460-468. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.05.006. Epub 2019 May 2.

Composition and endocrine effects of water collected in the Kibale national park in Uganda.

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UMR 7221 Evolution of Endocrine Regulations, Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, 7 Rue Cuvier, 75005, Paris, France. Electronic address:
UMR 7221 Evolution of Endocrine Regulations, Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, 7 Rue Cuvier, 75005, Paris, France.
Laboratoire de Métrologie et D'Essais, 1, Rue Gaston Boissier, 75724, Paris Cedex 15, France.
Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala, Uganda.
Watchfrog, 1 Rue Pierre Fontaine, 91000, Evry, France.
UMR 7206 CNRS/MNHN/P7, Eco-anthropologie et D'ethnobiologie, Hommes et Environnements, Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Musée de L'Homme, 17 Place Du Trocadéro, 75016, Paris, France; Great Ape Conservation Project (GACP), Sebitoli Research Station, Kibale National Park, Fort Portal, Uganda.


Pesticides are used worldwide with potential harmful effects on both fauna and flora. The Kibale National Park in Uganda, a site renowned for its biodiversity is surrounded by tea, banana and eucalyptus plantations as well as maize fields and small farms. We previously showed presence of pesticides with potential endocrine disruptive effects in the vicinity. To further investigate the water pollution linked to agricultural pressure in this protected area, we implemented a complementary monitoring strategy based on: analytical chemistry, effects based methods and the deployment of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Chemical analysis of the POCIS extracts revealed the presence of 13 pesticides: carbofuran, DEET, 2.4-D amine, carbaryl, ametryn, isoproturon, metolachlor, terbutryn, dimethoate, imidacloprid, picaridin, thiamethoxam, carbendazim, with the first three being present in the largest quantities. Water samples collected at the POCIS sampling sites exhibited thyroid and estrogen axis disrupting activities in vivo, in addition to developmental and behaviour effects on Xenopus laevis tadpoles model. Based on our observations, for the health of local human and wildlife populations, further monitoring as well as actions to reduce agrochemical use should be considered in the Kibale National Park and in regions exposed to similar conditions.


Endocrine disruptors; POCIS; Pesticides; Protected areas; Wildlife conservation

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